Thursday, December 16, 2010

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What happened after 1807?

1807
Great Britain passes the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act abolishing the Transatlantic slave trade and levying fines on British captains importing slaves of up to £100 per slave.
United States entirely abolishes Slave Trade.
British minister in Lisbon instructed to lobby for Treaty to abolish Portuguese slave trade(More Read Click Here)

Principles of the Monroe Doctrine

What is the definition of the Monroe Doctrine?
When President Monroe spoke to Congress in December 1823, he outlined four main principles to help keep European countries and Russia out of the Western hemisphere. The United States did not want countries such as France and Spain to continue to colonize land in the Americas. The area that was particularly targeted were the Latin American states that had recently gained independence from Spain.
The four principles President Monroe discussed that day were:
  • If European countries interfered in Western Hemisphere affairs or attempted to colonize more land in the Americas, the United States would regard this behavior as aggressive and a security threat. The United States would have to act to combat these aggressive acts.
  • In return, the United States promised not to interfere with the European colonies already in the New World (Western Hemisphere), and they would not enter into any European wars unless Americans were threatened.
  • No more colonization was open to European countries in the Western Hemisphere.
  • European countries and the United States had different political systems.
Those four principles help you answer the question: What is the definition of the Monroe Doctrine?

Effects of the Monroe Doctrine

james monroe photo by cliff1066 www.flickrAfter you know what is the definition of the Monroe Doctrine, it is important to know some of the effects this policy had on European countries and the United States in the early 1820s.
At first, the United States did not have the military to back up the principles of the Monroe Doctrine. But Great Britain agreed with the doctrine because they wanted to trade with states in Latin America, and the Royal Navy (from Great Britain) helped to enforce the doctrine. Britain didn't want Spain or France to colonize any more of the Western Hemisphere or control trade in the colonies. They were especially worried about the Latin American states going back under Spanish rule. If this happened, Spain would cut off Britain's ability to trade in these markets.
In 1836, Great Britain had an alliance with the Republic of Texas, when Texas declared itself independent from the United States. The alliance was not upheld because American officials insisted it went against the Monroe Doctrine. ( Read More Please Click Here )


Why did the U.S. go to war with Spain in 1898?
There many reasons and scholars have been fighting about this for decades.  One of the theories that I reject is the economic theory.  I know there is a revisionist school that believes that we were doing this to open up markets and I think some of that impetus crept in.  In working on [my book] though, I was struck by the fact that Henry Cabot Lodge, who had many friends on Wall Street and in the business community, was fighting them over going to war.  They didn’t want war, they thought it would be bad for the markets.  Now, as the war got under way, the business community got on board, and some of them did begin to see the possibility of new markets abroad.  So there was an economic motive, but I think it was of a lower order.
( Read More Click Here )


American History: US Begins to Extend Its Influence Far Beyond Its Shores

The destruction of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana Harbor in 1898
Photo: loc.gov
The destruction of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana Harbor in 1898

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SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, the United States was not concerned much with events in other countries. It was too busy dealing with events inside its own borders. At that time, the nation was recovering from the Civil War. It was expanding to the West. And it was developing industries.( More Read Click Here Please )

On May 1st, 8,0000 miles from Cuba, Commodore George Dewey destroys the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. ( More Info Click Here )

British warship sails into Havana Bay on official visit

The first British warship to visit Cuba since before the 1959 revolution sailed into Havana Bay on Monday, where it was greeted by a Cuban Navy band playing "God Save the Queen."

HMS Manchester enters Havana's bay
HMS Manchester enters Havana's bay beside the colonial-era Morro Cabana fortress Photo: REUTERS
With its colours flying and bright red Sea Dart missiles poised on deck, the destroyer HMS Manchester pulled into port opposite Old Havana, the historic centre of the Cuban capital, at the start of a five-day visit to the Communist-led island.
The ship's officers were to meet with their Cuban counterparts to discuss collaboration on counter-drug and disaster relief operations in the Caribbean region.
The last time a British warship stopped at the island was in 1957 when the frigate HMS Bigbury Bay visited Havana.
At the time, a rebel insurgency led by Fidel Castro was under way and on Jan. 1, 1959, it toppled the government of dictator Fulgencio Batista and took power.
At the height of the Cold War, Mr Castro transformed the island into a Communist state and took on the Soviet Union as Cuba's top ally, which cooled relations with the West.

BOOMERANG

Santos Suarez, Havana, December 9, 2010, (PD) In 1776 the North American colonies declared their independence from Great Britain. Spain and France, rivals of England, took advantage of situation and began to aid the American rebels. Consignments of arms and ammunition were dispatched to Havana, from which port were forwarded to New Orleans, where they were received by independence.

The port of Havana was opened freely American ships, both war and merchant trade  with the same created "a new and abundant source of profit."

There  be noted that despite the English Navigation Act of 1651 that provided that all goods manufactured in the Thirteen Colonies were  transported in British ships, the 1750, which prohibited the manufacture  boat and cast iron, 1732, which prohibited "To the manufacture of hats" and a string of restrictions only to trade with other countries, but between them Thirteen Colonies, the Americans managed to violate all these laws, decrees and arbitrary and built sawmills, foundries,  textiles, shoes, glass, flour mills, ships and even happy hats and contraband trade with who gave them wins.

According to William Foster in his Political History Americas, for 1775 were 2000 American ships in service a crew of 33,000 men, so it's no wonder the commercial development that occurred on the island as a result of rebellion in the Thirteen Colonies, preamble to what would later Cuba-EU trade was interrupted in 1959 and which claim here since half a century ago is restored.

But ... and there's always a but  in all these stories ... Recognizing England in 1783, the Independence of the Thirteen Colonies adopted the name United States of America, the Madrid government, true to that old saying, "dog  huevero though it burned his nose, "ordered the Captain General in island, Luís de Unzaga, "the restoration in full force of law  prohibiting trade with foreign ships. "

One year later in 1784, a royal decree banned the sale of foreign books. Barriers also legislated against certain studies such as legal, who believed they could raise "political awareness the colonized. " This was the preamble to other prohibitions.

Although  Ramiro Guerra in his Manual of the History of Cuba as notes, highlights "It was the first economic depression recorded as sharp character  on the island. " It was so powerful was that affected the three media in which Seats entire society: economic, social and political.

No  You can stop comparing the contrast of the American Revolution  with the revolt of the Cuban planters in Havana on 21 August  1717, 59 years earlier. The trigger was the same: the arbitrary and abusive tax.

The first succeeded, the second also in this first rebellion, which lasted only 11 months. No took this opportunity, they had managed to take Havana. It withdrew peacefully after officials sealed the snuff were dismissed. Six years later, they rebel and the dog, though it burned his nose, was huevero. This time tragically ended with the hanging of 12 planters in the hill Jesus del Monte.

The contrast between yesterday and today is recognized  in these pages of the past history of Cuba, just enough to read without trouble. As said Felix Varela, time passes and the "error raises with new mask "

History teaches us, but it is a boomerang if not hit the target, back again. Americans gave  the target, we still practice marksmanship.

primaveradigital@gmail.com
Photo: Ana Torricella
Monument to the planters in the hill of the Church of Jesus del Monte 
S: http://www.primaveradigital.org/ OCR translates Expert LPPNEWS CopyRights FrontLine Results

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LONDON, Dec. 16, 2010

WikiLeaks Founder Assange to Fight for Bail

Court to Rule on Appeal Keeping Australian in Prison after Judge Granted Him Bail Earlier this Week

(CBS/AP)  WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange was due back in British court Thursday to fight for bail following a week of legal drama which has seen prosecutors challenge a judge's decision to free him.

Assange was granted a conditional release on $316,000 bail Tuesday, but British prosecutors are apparently trying to keep him behind bars and appealed the decision to London's High Court.

Assange has already spent more than a week in prison following his surrender to British police over a Swedish sex-crimes warrant. He denies any wrongdoing but has refused to voluntarily surrender to Sweden's request to extradite him for questioning.

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Supporters of the 39-year-old Australian say the charges are trumped up and possibly politically motivated.

Assange's British lawyer, Mark Stephens, said Wednesday that "somebody has it in for Julian Assange and we only can conjecture why."

Speaking to media Thursday morning as he headed into court, Stephens said donors had contributed the necessary bail money, which the court wanted to see up front, in cash.

The New York Times reports, meanwhile, that the United States is trying to build a conspiracy case against Assange. Prosecutors are searching for evidence of "collusion in his early contacts with an Army intelligence analyst suspected of leaking the information."

Lawyer Gemma Lindfield, acting for Sweden, told Tuesday's hearing at the City of Westminster Magistrates' Court that Assange faced serious allegations and may abscond if granted bail.

She said he is accused of rape, molestation and unlawful coercion by two women for separate incidents in August. Assange has yet to be charged.

Assange Lawyer: Rape Allegations a "Stitch Up"

Although the request to reverse the bail decision was widely reported Tuesday to have been at the request of Sweden, reports in the British media on Thursday said the Swedish prosecutors had no opinion on Assange's bail request.

Karin Rosander, director of communications for Sweden's prosecutor's office, told The Guardian: "The decision was made by the British prosecutor. I got it confirmed by the (Crown Prosecution Service) this morning that the decision to appeal the granting of bail was entirely a matter for the CPS. The Swedish prosecutors are not entitled to make decisions within Britain. It is entirely up to the British authorities to handle it."

Assange's lawyers say the allegations stem from a dispute over "consensual but unprotected sex" and argue that he has offered to make himself available for questioning via video link or in person in Britain.

Lindfield also rejected attempts to link Assange's case with the work of WikiLeaks - which last month deeply angered U.S. officials by beginning to publish its trove of 250,000 secret U.S. diplomatic cables.



Wikileaks on Cuba: Fidel Castro 'nearly died'

Fidel Castro on 18 November 2010  
Mr Castro now appears to be in good health
Cuban leader Fidel Castro came close to death in 2006, according to the latest secret US diplomatic cables published by Wikileaks.
Mr Castro almost died after suffering a perforated intestine during an internal flight, unnamed sources told US diplomats in Havana.
The illness led Mr Castro to hand power to his brother Raul, although he has since returned to public life.

December 15, 2010

A screen shot of a web browser showing the WikiLeaks website, with a picture of its founder Julian Assange. — Reuters pic
(Read More Click Here)

Pakistani WikiLeaks flag burning
Pakistani demonstrators burn a US flag in support of WikiLeaks and its founder Julian Assange during a rally in Multan. Photograph: Mohammad Malik/AFP/Getty Images

Cuba: pirates with permits

Cuba's new economic reforms bring out the DVD bootleggers.

Nick Miroff
Pirated movies, Cuba
Shoppers outside a Havana market browse pirated American movies. The Cuban government now licenses the vendors. (Nick Miroff/GlobalPost) 
HAVANA, Cuba — It might take years for Raul Castro's economic reforms to significantly alter Cuba's state-dominated retail and commercial landscape.
But at least one set of small-time entrepreneurs has surfaced on Havana's streets in recent weeks, freshly licensed to sell their wares as openly as if they were in Cairo or Kabul: DVD pirates.
A month after the communist government began issuing new legal permits for 178 forms of self-employment, vendors hawking bootlegged movies and music have begun setting up outside markets, at bus stops and even along sidewalks around the city. No longer forced to sell their goods in secret, they now carry laminated ID cards recognizing them as authorized, tax-paying professionals.
“I'm making money for my family, and I'm making money for the state,” said Lupe Gonzalez, who now runs four separate licensed businesses from her front patio in Havana's Vedado neighborhood, conveniently located opposite one of the city's biggest fruit-and-vegetable markets.
On one table, she laid out cheap trinkets, household cleaning supplies and various decorative knickknacks, while on another stand, she displayed a colorful array of women's shoes, careful to keep each business separate, as the law requires. A few feet away, another relative offered eyeglass repair services.
Most prominent of all, though, was the big rack of bootlegged CDs and DVDs, priced at the equivalent of $1 to $2, with everything from Shakira and Michael Jackson to Dora the Explorer and the Incredible Hulk.
Gonzalez said she paid 1,100 pesos (about $50) a month in taxes, license fees and social security contributions. Did she think that was fair?
“Don't ask,” she said.
At least she didn't have to worry about copyright laws. The Castro government isn’t likely to crack down any time soon, given that the Cuban state is arguably the country's biggest pirate of all, filling the island's airwaves and cinemas with unlicensed American movies and television shows.
Street-level vendors and government television programmers generally copy their material from the same sources: illegal hookups to U.S. satellite providers like Direct TV, or discs brought in from Miami or elsewhere.
In the Cuban government’s view, that's only fair, since U.S. trade sanctions prevent the country from acquiring such materials legally. And individual sellers struggling to make ends meet aren’t especially sympathetic to arguments about the intellectual property rights of foreign media conglomerates.
“There's nothing in the constitution against this,” said Hansal Vargas, who had just lined up his offerings along the sidewalk outside the Vedado market. Each of his DVDs came loaded with five or six American movies, organized according to themes like romance, action and baseball. Pornography and any political materials are taboo, but otherwise, it was a wide-open marketplace.
“I used to have to hide these,” explained Vargas, who pays the government about $2.50 a month for his license and profits roughly $1 on every DVD sold, after production costs. “Now I can do this openly, with more freedom. It’s great.”
With Cuba in the process of shedding 500,000 state workers, the government is looking to move employees off the public payrolls and capture new revenue from the island’s large informal sector. By licensing these off-the-books occupations — like selling DVDs and CDs — the government can attempt to bring some degree of regulation, even if it could care less about copyright protections.
What is less visible at this stage of the reform process are private establishments that resemble small businesses elsewhere in the world. There’s little advertising or signage, and the city remains full of empty storefronts and other under-utilized state-owned property that could be more productive in private hands. Further liberalization measures are likely forthcoming in 2011, when Cuba’s Communist Party will hold its first congress in 14 years.
Government officials say they’ve issued more than 46,000 new self-employment licenses, with another 20,000 in the pipeline. The average processing time for the permits is a mere five days — a light-speed pace by the standards of Cuban bureaucracy. In recent weeks, Cuba’s state-run newspapers and television programs have devoted extensive coverage to the permitting process and the new tax structures.
Still, it’s not clear how Cuba can possibly generate enough jobs to absorb the 500,000 workers — one-tenth of the country’s labor force — who are due to be laid off by April. And deeper cuts are soon to follow.
In formal meetings held at Cuban workplaces to discuss the economic changes in preparation for the congress, employees have consistently asked for further liberalization measures, while government officials take great pains to insist the country isn’t embracing capitalism, but “perfecting” socialism.
Ordinary Cubans on the streets say they’re looking for more variety and better services — and the newly licensed entrepreneurs are delivering.
“I’d like to see them legalize more things,” said Humberto Davila, having just purchased a CD of salsa music for 30 Cuban pesos ($1.25). “This country needs to change a lot.”
 F:http://www.globalpost.com

The signing of the statement by Cuban Vice Foreign Minister Dagoberto Rodriguez with his visiting Greek counterpart Spyros Kouvelis marked the official resumption of economic cooperation between the two countries, Cuba's Foreign Ministry said.

During a meeting with Rodriguez, Kouvelis said the joint declaration was very important to establishing and increasing bilateral ties "not only in the political sphere, but also in other areas such as sea transportation and agriculture."


Guillermo Fariñas is an independent journalist who has been involved in a peaceful campaign for freedom of expression in Cuba. At the end of 2009 he started a hunger strike that lasted 4 months calling for the release of prisoners of conscience.

In the past, the Cuban authorities have denied exit permits to those who express critical views of the government.

In October last year, Yoani Sánchez, a blogger who was awarded a special citation for journalistic excellence by the board of the Maria Moors Cabot Prize in New York, could not attend the ceremony because the Cuban authorities refused to lift travel restrictions imposed on her.

The decision to deny Guillermo Fariñas also follows recent attempts to clamp down on human rights activities in Cuba.
( More Read Click Here )

Empty chair for Cubas Sakharov prize-winner  

Cuban opposition activist and Sajarov

Cuban opposition activist and Sajarov Prize winner Guillermo Farinas gestures during a press conference, on December 7, 2010 in Havana. In a recorded message to the European Parliament, which gave him the award, Farinas described himself as "a psychologist, librarian, independent journalist (and) three-time political prisoner".… Read more »
(AFP/Adalberto Roque)
December 15, 2010 5:04 AM PST

WikiLeaks.info rebuts malware warnings



WikiLeaks.info, a site assisting WikiLeaks' effort to share U.S. war information and diplomatic cables, is rebutting online security organizations' warnings that its Web site could be dangerous to visit.
WikiLeaks.info provides a list of sites that mirror the original WikiLeaks content, and in recent days the main WikiLeaks.org Web site has redirected visitors to the WikiLeaks.info mirror page. WikiLeaks.info has grown in importance because of others' moves two weeks ago that made it difficult to reach WikiLeaks.org and led its operators to resurface at WikiLeaks.ch, a Swiss domain.
Spamhaus, a nonprofit volunteer organization that seeks to curtail spam, phishing, botnets for network attacks, and malware, issued a "malware warning" yesterday for WikiLeaks.info.
WikiLeaks.info "is hosted in a very dangerous 'neighborhood,' Webalta's 92.241.160.0/19 IP address space, a 'blackhat' network which Spamhaus believes caters primarily to, or is under the control of, Russian cybercriminals," Spamhaus said. "Our concern is that any Wikileaks archive posted on a site that is hosted in Webalta space might be infected with malware. Since the main wikileaks.org website now transparently redirects visitors to mirror.wikileaks.info and thus directly into Webalta's controlled IP address space, there is substantial risk that any malware infection would spread widely."
WikiLeaks.info strenuously objected to the warning today.
"We find it very disturbing that Spamhaus labels a site as dangerous without even checking if there is any malware on it. We monitor the wikileaks.info site and we can guarantee that there is no malware on it," the WikiLeaks.info site said.
WikiLeaks.info is only "very loosely" affiliated with the official WikiLeaks effort, a WikiLeaks.info representative told CNET. "In, fact we were caught [by] surprise on last Saturday as we all of a sudden had 1 million hits per day on our Web site. The switch"--when WikiLeaks began redirecting visitors to the official WikiLeaks.org site to WikiLeaks.info--"was not discussed with us."
Spamhaus' services for tracking dangerous domains are widely used globally, so the warning carries significant weight. And although Spamhaus said it "takes no political stand on the WikiLeaks affair," its actions pose a further difficulty for those allied with WikiLeaks' cause.
WikiLeaks editor Julian Assange was arrested last week in the U.K. for possible extradition to Sweden, where he faces allegations of sex crimes. Assange denies the alleged crimes. A British judge ruled he could go free on bail yesterday, but prosecutors are appealing that decision. The prosecutors' challenge is expected to be heard tomorrow, according to Reuters.
More directly related to WikiLeaks' mission is the possibility of prosecution in the United States for violation of the Espionage Act.
Spamhaus also warned that WikiLeaks.info is relying on Heihachi.net, "a provider run 'by criminals for criminals,'" for Domain Name Service (DNS) needs. DNS is a technology that converts the Web addresses people type into the numeric Internet addresses computers actually use to communicate.
Here again, WikiLeaks.info objected.
"We do not know who else is hosted with Heihachi Ltd and it is none of our business. They provide reliable hosting to us. That's it," WikiLeaks.info said on its Web site.
WikiLeaks is concerned about its reputation. "That's why we contacted Spamhaus to find out if they could remove us from the list," the WikiLeaks.info representative told CNET. Spamhaus hasn't responded, according to the WikiLeaks.info Web site.
WikiLeaks.info selected its services to avoid further problems with interrupted Net service, the site said. "WikiLeaks has been pulled from big hosters like Amazon. That's why we are using a 'bulletproof' hoster that does not just kick a site when it gets a letter from government or a big company," the site said.
Spamhaus is not alone in its concern. On Sunday, security company Trend Micro also warned of the Heihachi.net connection.
"Heihachi Ltd. is known as a bulletproof, blackhat-hosting provider in Russia that is a safe haven for criminals and fraudsters. It hosts a long list of criminally related domains. Among these domains are banking fraud domains, carders' (criminals who trade stolen credit card information) websites, malware sites, and phishing sites. No matter what your political view is, this is rather disturbing," Trend Micro senior threat researcher Feike Hacquebord said. "We assess the wikileaks.info domain as highly risky and we do not recommend visiting this site as long as it is hosted by Heihachi."
Updated 7:17 a.m. PT with comments from WikiLeaks.info.
A view of the WikiLeaks.info site today.
A view of the WikiLeaks.info site today.
(Credit: Screenshot by Stephen Shankland/CNET)