Saturday, April 16, 2011

50 anniversary of the Bay of Pigs invasion...

The impact of the invasion



Memories of a sister of a deceased Brigade
Elsa Fernández talks about the death of his brother in the invasion of Bay of Pigs .
El Nuevo Herald Studios

jtamayo@elnuevoherald.com

The Cuban Missile Crisis. The decades of Fidel Castro in power. The Miami of today. The election of George W. Bush's presidency United States.
As dissimilar as they may seem, all these things are consequences of the Bay of Pigs invasion for 50 years, on April 17, 1500 by Cuban exiles.
In this  then, the Bay of Pigs was the defeat of the exiles Brigade 2506. Today is considered the beginning of a string events affecting the history of Cuba, the southern Florida, United States and many other parts of the world.
On the island, Castro has crushed the opposition to the incarceration of  more than 100.000 citizens suspected of being enemies of the revolution in the days before and after the landing, strengthened his power assuming the mantle of a nationalist who fought against the "imperialism American "and accelerated its alliance with the Soviet Union.
The Cubans on the island never returned to face a Castro so strongly and well organized, "said Juan Clark, a veteran of the Brigade 2506 and Professor of Sociology at Miami Dade College. "That neutered the spirit of rebellion "against Castro in Cuba, he added.
Castro  ruled for the next 45 years and handed over power in 2006 to his younger brother, General Raul Castro, after nearly dying of  intestinal bleeding.
For Havana and Moscow, the failed invasion showed a timid President John F. Kennedy repeatedly  reduced landing plans to avoid negative publicity. However, they also feared that ordering another invasion against the island, this time by the U.S. armed forces.
Few  weeks after the Bay of Pigs, Kennedy, then 43, Austria met with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev. Later, Khrushchev ordered the deployment of nuclear missiles short and medium range on the island.
"Khrushchev took his measure Kennedy after the Bay of Pigs and said: 'This is a rich man womanizer. It is a wimp, '"said Brian Latell, a senior analyst retired Cuban affairs at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The  Missile Crisis in October 1962, during which Kennedy forced Moscow to withdraw the nuclear missiles, placed the world as never before on the brink of nuclear war. In return, Kennedy promised not order an invasion of Cuba.
"No Bay of Pigs not there had been a Cuban Missile Crisis, "said Howard Jones, Professor History of the University of Alabama and author of Bay of Pigs (Pivotal Moments in American History), 2010.
Decided  to prove that would not be pressed, Kennedy chose to confront fully to the situation, Jones said. "And that was Vietnam.'' About 2.000 U.S. military advisers were already there in 1961. End  1963 the figure reached to 16.000.
Enraged by the defeat  Bay of Pigs, Kennedy and his brother Robert - Member of family who had a reputation for winning - the secret operation launched Mongoose the CIA to overthrow Castro. Other initiatives including murder.
Later plans to assassinate leaders foreigners who opposed U.S. policy, says Jones, would later in the sights independence leader Congo Patrice Lumumba, the president of South Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem, and the Dominican dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo.
The Fans of conspiracy theories have claimed that Bay Pigs was one reason the Kennedy assassination in 1963 Dallas, Texas, at the hands of a Castro who wanted revenge plans  Washington to assassinate him. From another angle, the theories also point exiles eager to get even the betrayal of the Brigade 2506.
Outside the United States and Cuba, Castro's star shone  much stronger after the Bay of Pigs, especially in battlefields of the Cold War in the Third World. Castro began  Playa Giron call the place "the first defeat imperialism in Latin America. "
"His popularity and credibility through the roof, especially in Latin America," recalled Latell.
Emboldened  its growing power on the island, Castro tried to export its Revolution training and arming guerrillas a wide phalanx Latin America. During the next three decades, about 200,000 people died in civil strife in the region.
Also sent thousands of troops to Africa. In 1975, assured the Marxist government Agostinho Neto's Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola. Shortly thereafter, Cuban troops to defend Mengistu Haile Mariam, a bloody dictator of Ethiopia, during a conflict with neighboring Somalia.
But  perhaps the most lasting effect of Bay of Pigs disaster can seen in the Cuban exile community in South Florida.
Perhaps  Most Americans have a positive image of Kennedy.  His administration used to evoke in some the idyllic image Camelot,  King Arthur's court. Also contributing to the legend his beautiful wife, Jacqueline. However, for most of the exiles  the 60 Kennedy was the president who betrayed the Brigade 2506 on the beaches of Cuba.
The failed invasion forced the exiles in the United States to accept the fact that no return to the island. This motivated them to become citizens and vote in elections predominantly by the Republican Party since Kennedy had been a Democrat.
The strong support of voters Cuban was considered an important factor in choosing George W. Bush in 2000, who won Florida by a few hundred votes.
And then there is South Florida, in the years  60 had nearly a million inhabitants and its tourist industry was downhill. Today they live in the region about 4 million people, almost a million Cuban Americans, and is an international business center.
Mario  Martinez-Malo, a member of a mortar squad Bay Pigs, said Miami's progress takes away bitterness of failure of invasion.
"We won. We did not win the war, but you see how Miami has progressed and how Cuba has been ruined. Who won? ".
http://www.elnuevoherald.com

Opinion...


Alberto Müller / Go play on words and wordy in Cuba


Less is known Raul Castro to his brother Fidel, simply because the older brother ill and distressed now, has often spoken Earthlings 300 000 miles above the sea, during its half century  the Stalinist leader of the Cuban revolution.
But in this passage of time, Raul has spoken much less, such Once their babblings, according to meters social rights, not  have reached and the 50 leagues.
However, at least younger brother Raul, "we mean in babblings comparison, has proved far less talkative than Fidel, but more realistic and consistent than his older brother.
Raúl recently recognized the project complete failure Marxist socialist which so many thousands of Cubans have ended  prison or face the firing squad, when he declared: 'O rectify or already ran out of time to continue along the cliff and  we are sinking. "
And he said the younger Castro babbler, 'which in 2011 was be introduced structural and conceptual changes in the model Cuban economic to cut spending, reduce subsidies, labor market flexibility, reduce the number of employees public and increase productivity. "
Go Raúl self declaration, although late keeps be raw and incisive, and his brother Fidel, the most-no babbler had ever done, he always concluded, his voice arrogant had resonances, blaming American imperialism.
Raul also emphasized in his recent statement in the league 50 ' had to change the minds of the Cubans and the leadership Castro to new economic scenarios to come, it was inconceivable that the Vietnamese, who learned to grow coffee with  Cubans will now be selling coffee to Cuba. "
And ironically Raul Castro ended the less wordy, saying 'that say the blockade is no excuse for not planting coffee  and we do not produce. "
Go play on words and wordy to be discovered at the end of  long way from over half a century of abuses, of misery and a system that does not produce, that Cuba must change to the initiative private, not waffle.
http://www.martinoticias.com

Cuba will spend 25% more in import prices rising international food


Informal market in Cuba.

Havana .- Cuba announced Friday that it will 25 percent increase over its planned expenditure item to import food because of rising international prices, which involve an extra payment of 308 million this year.
In statements published today by the official newspaper Granma, the president of the state-owned food importer ALIMPORT, Igor  Montero said that the impact of the global crisis on the economy Cuban for this year is estimated at a total of more than 308 million dollars for the purchase of commodities.
"This means that all the growth it expected revenue  export of nickel, services, sugar, etc., and do not enter  as additional, but to be used to cover the deficit  the food bill, "noted Montero.
He said, therefore, there will be "an increase subsidies at rates not covered by the plan "of the year due to "current structure of distribution and sale of food"  includes the marketing of a product group by ration at subsidized prices.
In his opinion, that "press further the balance of payments and economic development "in Cuba, which imports about 80 per  percent of food consumed by its inhabitants for a cost of about  1,500 million dollars a year.
Granma states that in particular expenditure is given for the purchase of  wheat, corn, milk powder and soybean meal and oil, representing up to 73 percent of the country's food bill.
According to Montero, between the Government's measures to mitigate upward trend in prices has been the recruitment of imports in the first months of the year and performing financial operations "of future purchases."
It is estimated that through this strategy the actual use of the island will be 25 and not 29 percent on higher expenses.
Montero added that a third strategy is to accelerate all projects to replace food imports and boost domestic production, an aspect that the government of Raul Castro qualified as a matter of "national security" and is a priority in  reform plan.
"With perseverance inexplicable gadgets rather than real possibilities of our economy, our government pays what cost so that, among the unprotected land, not included any Cuba, "Granma said, referring to the humanitarian consequences  the food crisis.
"However, the coverage to offer" miracles "have been exhausted and, a world where trade increases mathematical pragmatism the more you turn the vortex against the poor people, the more there be found in our soils and industrial strength to get out of its power, "said the newspaper.
http://www.noticiassin.com

MIGRATION-LATIN...

Death lurking
By Patricia Grogg

LA  HAVANA, Aug 27 (IPS) - The whole neighborhood knows who tried to leave Cuba in  a raft built by himself. "Poor thing, you want to go all ways, but no luck. I return, "says one of its adjacent to the boy's silence, reluctant to tell their adventures.

His goal, like that of every Cuban citizen who chooses to jump into sea ​​in flimsy boats moved by the desire to migrate is States  Together.

"Believe you'll find there a fast and may be purchased many things, "he told IPS the talkative woman, who identified himself only as Antonia.

The story is common to many irregular migrants, not only Cuba, but other Latin American countries. Dissatisfied with their situation in the country of origin, migration is presented as table salvation only in the search for ways to improve economically.

In some cases, only death awaits them, as happened this month within days of each other in the sinking of two vessels, a from Ecuador, one from Cuba, overloaded with illegal migrants.

The Ecuadorian vessel with capacity for 15 people, had 103. The speedboat carrying a Cuban migrants was thirty designed for no more than 10 passengers. Seven men and two women were rescued in the first case. Two men and a woman, the second.

Ecuador passengers wanted to go to Guatemala and then follow overland route to U.S. via Mexico. Those of Cuba hoped perhaps using the same route or ride in a short time the waters separating  this archipelago of U.S. shores and be covered by Act Cuban Adjustment.

This rule, enacted in 1966, gives the Cuban immigrant who walked U.S. soil the right to opt for legal residency and  work there. But travelers intercepted at sea must be returned to Cuba, in pursuance of bilateral agreements.

For Cuban President Fidel Castro, the law is a "violation" these agreements in 1994 and 1995. "Anyone who does not give him visa  encourage illegal march, "he said on Friday evening, before the  State television cameras.

Castro blamed the U.S. government traffic people, which also linked to Mexico, where authorities have a "tolerant attitude" to not take special interest in the return of boat people arriving on its shores, thus encouraging the use of that country as a bridge.

According to Castro, from that country were only eight migrants repatriated  Cuban illegal between 2001 and 2004 and 16 in 2005, about 300 to being held in immigration centers in Mexico. "Now he is about see if we receive them or not, "he added.        Boaters, leaving the Mexican resort of Cancun or from the  southern U.S. state of Florida in search of migrants irregular charging up to $ 10,000 per person, said, leaning on  a report whose origin is not specified.        From there, move their passengers to United States air, sea or land, traffic that is often mixed with the drug.  Another route used by that network is Honduras, according to the document forward by Castro.

Washington's official estimates indicate that from October passed the U.S. coastguard intercepted to 2,366 Cubans in the Straits of Florida. But it is unknown how many died in the attempt to reach the promised land.

Those who remain in Cuba remain with an attentive ear to U.S. radio stations to know the fate of relatives or friend. Just heard the wreck, 17 this month, the boat with 32 people on board.

On Friday, the Castro government confirmed that the three survivors, whose identities were not released, were taken to the island by a merchant ship of Antigua and Barbuda who bought in its way to the port of Havana.

In an official note, the authorities blamed Washington the tragedy and called for an end to the smuggling of human beings  the Cuban Adjustment Act, which constitutes the main stimulus. "

But the accusation was rejected by the Interests Section of the United States, that country's principal representative in Cuba.

In brief statement released to the foreign press, Section Interests described as "cynical" the Cuban statement said who died 'fleeing the political repression and the impoverishment caused by the government, "de Castro.

"Rough seas take many lives. Sometimes it is impossible how many, "he said in June to the media in his country Luis Diaz, spokesman  U.S. Coast Guard.

Data indicate that body that the mosaic of nationalities held at sea in the last year includes Haitians, Dominicans, Ecuadorians, Chinese and even Ukrainians.       The danger encourages the search for other routes. Recent reports  Paraguay alerted reporters from that country also became transit route for Cuban emigration to the United States to where they travel on false passports that were sent from Florida.

"All embassies have increased visa requirements, although  As the pressure (of people who want to travel) is great, "he confided to IPS Latin American diplomat who requested anonymity.

Cuba has 11.2 million inhabitants. An estimated 1.5 million  Cubans residing in over 100 other countries. About 1.3 million living in the U.S., 70,000 in Spain and 50,000 in Venezuela, where also reside temporarily thousands of Cuban.

The Latin American population living in the United States is estimated at  about 36 million, of which only four percent are of Cuban. However, the potential migration of the island is estimated  490,000 and 700,000 people. ****** + International Migration - Population Division of ECLAC (Http://www.eclac.cl/celade/migracion/) + Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cuba (http://www.cubaminrex.cu) + Interests Section in Cuba U.S., English (Http://usembassy.state.gov/posts/cu1/wwwhmain.html) (END / IPS / pg / mj / pr sl/05) (END/2005)
http://www.ipsnoticias.ne

Survey: 78 percent of Cubans vote for a democratic change

77% distrust the government's ability to solve the economic problems of the island, according to the survey, conducted by the International Republican Institute.
78% of the Cuban vote, if had the opportunity for a "fundamental political change" that lead to democracy, and 77% distrust the ability of Raul Castro's government to solve economic problems Isla said International Republican Institute (IRI), based in Washington, revealing the poll results held in Cuba between 28 January and 10 February this year.
The IRI said the survey applied to 463 Cubans over 18 years living in Havana, the former province of Havana, Pinar  del Rio, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus, Villa Clara, Cienfuegos, Ciego de Avila, Camaguey, Holguin, Guantanamo and Las Tunas.
Cubans want "overwhelmingly" democracy and freedom, "Including multiparty elections and free speech," said  IRI in the analysis of survey results. That desire is now "greater than at any other time since Raul Castro took over power in 2008. "
93% of young people between 18 and 29 said they would vote for political change, compared to 46.8% among those aged 60 years, according to the survey.
90.7% of Cubans support the transition to a market economy with private property and said the IRI.
Contrary to reports the government of the island, according to which seven million citizens participated in discussions leading Communist Party Congress, almost 78% of respondents said that did not.
Economic concerns remain the most important 85% of Cubans. Respondents to the survey mentioned the low wages, high cost of living, food shortages and existence of two currencies as major problems.
44% of respondents said their economic situation is worse than two years ago.
On the use of information technology, controlled by the State, the survey found that less than 5% of Cubans have  internet access, while only 23% have access to email mail.
Despite the growing number of mobile phone users from that the government allowed citizens to purchase cellular 2008, only 25 percent of respondents said they used such service. Three years ago, the figure was 7.9%, according to another survey IRI conducted then.
"Cuba is still far behind the countries of Latin America with low mobile penetration, such as Haiti, which has a 35%  and well below the regional average of 90%, IRI said.
The survey, conducted in face to face interviews, has a margin of 5% error. The IRI is presented as an independent defense of democracy.
http://www.diariodecuba.com